Women as Wombs: Reproductive Technologies And The Battle Over Women’s Freedom

Women as Wombs: Reproductive TechnologiesAnd The Battle Over Women’s Freedom Janice Raymond Spinifex 1993 In an age of in vitro fertilization (IVF), sex predetermination, embryo transfer, and reproductive contracts, women have become abstract entities called “surrogates,” “population polluters,” “maternal environments,” and “human incubators.” The rhetoric around reproductive technologies is, according to Raymond, part of the…

Radical Theory

The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male

The Transsexual Empire: TheMaking of the She-Male Janice Raymond Beacon Press 1979 Raymond investigates the role of transsexualism in society – particularly psychological and surgical approaches to it – and argues that transsexualism reinforces traditional gender stereotypes. Raymond also writes about the ways in which the medical-psychiatric complex is medicalizing gender identity and the social and political context that has helped…

Friendship History

A Passion for Friends: Toward a Philosophy of Female Affection

A Passion for Friends: Towards aPhilosophy of Female Affection Janice G. Raymond Beacon Press 1986 The ancient Greek philosophers believed that politics was the business of friends. Aristotle wrote that friendship glued states together and cemented political alliances. However, the citizens of the Greek city-states were exclusively male and these political theories were based upon…